C language completes comeback in programming popularity

The once-declining C language has completed a comeback in the monthly Tiobe Index of language popularity, winning the 2017 Programming Language of the Year designation from Tiobe as the biggest gainer in share.

Although the language only grew 1.69 percentage points in its rating year over year in the January index, that was enough beat out runners-up Python (1.21 percent gain) and Erlang (0.98 percent gain). Just five months ago, C was at its lowest-ever rating, at 6.477 percent; this month, its rating is 11.07 percent, once again putting it in second place behind Java (14.215 percent)—although Java dropped 3.05 percent compared to January 2017. C’s revival is possibly being fueled by its popularity in manufacturing and industry, including the automotive market, Tiobe believes.

The Tiobe Programming Language of the Year for 2016 was Google’s Go language (Golang). Tiobe, which provides software quality services, bases its rankings on a formula assessing searches on languages in popular search engines such as Google, Bing, and Wikipedia.

Other languages that saw jumps in 2017 included R, which rose from 16th to 8th place; Kotlin, which jumped to 39th place after being in 89th a year earlier, and Erlang, which placed 23rd after being in 44th place a year ago.

But promising languages such as Julia, Hack, Rust, and Kotlin were not able to reach the top 20 or even the top 30, Tiobe pointed out. “Becoming part of the top 10 or even the top 20 requires a large ecosystem of communities and evangelists including conferences,” said Paul Jansen, Tiobe managing director and compiler of the index. “This is not something that can be developed in one year’s time.”

The top-rated languages in the index this month were as follows:

Java (14.215 percent)
C (11.037 percent)
C++ (5.603 percent)
Python (4.678 percent)
C# (3.754 percent)
JavaScript (3.465 percent)
Visual Basic .Net (3.261 percent)
R (2.549 percent)
PHP (2.532 percent)
Perl (2.419 percent)

Source: C language completes comeback in programming popularity | InfoWorld

1932: Polish Cipher Bureau Success!

1 December 1932: Polish Cipher Bureau first solved ENIGMA message. (Read an article in our Cryptologic Bytes Archives about Poland’s Overlooked Enigma Codebreakers.”)

Polish mathematicians from the University of Poznan (from left): Marian Rejewski, Jerzy Rozycki, and Henryk Zygalski broke the Enigma code, the most important encryption machine used by Nazi Germany. The success of the Polish cryptologists from the Cryptology Bureau enabled the British to read encrypted German correspondences during World War II, contributing to the wartime success of the allies.

In 1928, when the German military began using the cipher machine, Enigma, the Polish Cipher Bureau began its efforts to break it. They hired the three mathematicians in 1932 to do just that! The team worked for months to determine the wiring of the rotors. Using a mathematical equation and key lists acquired from a German traitor, they determined the three rotors’ internal wiring. They discovered three ways of deciphering Enigma readings. The Polish team then exploited some of the Germans’ standardized methods and successfully read many of the encrypted messages. They read the first one on December 1, 1932. They were in business…at least for a time…Seven years later, just before war broke out, the Poles handed over their knowledge of the Enigma codes, as well as Polish-built replicas of the machines, to British and French Intelligence officers near Warsaw.

The government official said that in recognition of the trio’s efforts, the upper house of Poland’s parliament has passed a resolution in their honor to ‘restore justice’. The resolution reads: ‘In both popular literature and official information, the public was told that the breaking of the Enigma codes was due to the work of the British Intelligence services to the complete omission of the work of Polish scientists.’

Source: National Cryptologic Foundation


Poland’s Overlooked Enigma Codebreakers

Posted on 07/08/2014

Poland’s Overlooked Enigma Codebreakers

By Gordon Corera
BBC News, Warsaw
4 July 2014
Read the article and see more photos online HERE.

The first breakthrough in the battle to crack Nazi Germany’s Enigma code was made not in Bletchley Park but in Warsaw. The debt owed by British wartime codebreakers to their Polish colleagues was acknowledged this week at a quiet gathering of spy chiefs. Continue reading “1932: Polish Cipher Bureau Success!”

I will be giving a talk on Cybersecurity for small businesses on December 8

Detective Kimo Hildreth and I will be giving a talk at a breakfast event on Cybersecurity for Small Businesses on Friday December 8, 2017, at 8:30am. To RSVP and view more event details click here. The event is organized by  Assemblymember Jacqui Irwin, and it will take place at 2100 Thousand Oaks Blvd, in the “Oak and Park Room”.

msoltys-talk-dec8-2017

Research position is available in the Department of Computer Science at the University of Pisa

A 20-month research position is available in the Department of Computer Science at the University of Pisa.

Research program:
Development of a novel software framework for processing compressed data structures, pattern matching and discovery, and their applications on biological sequence collections

Research areas include (but are not limited to):
– string algorithms,
– text indexing for big data,
– indexes for approximate pattern matching,
– text compression and compressed text indexing,
– external memory indexes,
– space efficient data structures, and
– shared memory parallel computing.

* Application deadline: 6th December 2017
* Potential starting dates: January/February 2018 (or as soon thereafter)
* Duration: 20 months
* Expected qualification: Master’s Degree or PhD.

The annual gross salary of the grant is EUR 25,200.00, which is approximately EUR 1,500.00 net per month after tax and mandatory retirement/superannuation contributions (for those having other mandatory retirement schemes other than INPS, the annual gross salary is EUR 23,930.46).  If you have family, you can also considerably increase your annual salary.

Candidates with expertise in string/parallel algorithms, combinatorics, software development and/or NGS bioinformatics are strongly encouraged to apply.

For more details on the job description and how to apply, please find the official competition call (both in Italian and English languages):
https://www.unipi.it/ateneo/bandi/assegni/2017/inf/6dic2017/index.htm

The Objects of Paul Cézanne

A few years ago, during a visit to Cézanne’s studio in Aix-en-Provence, I experienced a flash of insight about the artist that I saw as intrinsic to his becoming the father of modern painting. Once having seen it, it inspired me to move in a new direction in my own work.

Cézanne painted his studio walls a dark gray with a hint of green. Every object in the studio, illuminated by a vast north window, seemed to be absorbed into the gray of this background. There were no telltale reflections around the edges of the objects to separate them from the background itself, as there would have been had the wall been painted white. Therefore, I could see how Cézanne, making his small, patch-like brush marks, might have moved his gaze from object to background, and back again to the objects, without the familiar intervention of the illusion of space. Cézanne’s was the first voice of “flatness,” the first statement of the modern idea that a painting was simply paint on a flat canvas, nothing more, and the environment he made served this idea. The play of light on this particular tone of gray was a precisely keyed background hum that allowed a new exchange between, say, the red of an apple and the equal value of the gray background. It was a proposal of tonal nearness that welcomed the idea of flatness.

Source: The Objects of Paul Cézanne, Captured

@CSUCI at ACM competitions – top team at 10th position!

Our top result was the 10th position, out of 105. Congratulations to our students! See all scores here:

Last year our students came in the 15th position (still a great achievement; read 2016 story). The year before that at 17th. We are climbing relentlessly.

The top 10 worst ransomware attacks of 2017

Ransomware continues to dominate the cybersecurity landscape in 2017, with businesses large and small paying millions of dollars to unlock encrypted files. These attacks appeared in 64% of all malicious emails sent in Q3, and with major successful campaigns such as NotPetya and WannaCry, show no signs of slowing down, according to a new report from security firm Webroot, released Tuesday.

“This past year was unlike anything we’ve ever seen,” David Dufour, vice president of engineering and cybersecurity at Webroot, said in a press release. “Attacks such as NotPetya and WannaCry were hijacking computers worldwide and spreading new infections through tried-and-true methods. This list is further evidence that cybercriminals will continue to exploit the same vulnerabilities in increasingly malicious ways. Although headlines have helped educate users on the devastating effects of ransomware, businesses and consumers need to follow basic cybersecurity standards to protect themselves.”

Here are the top 10 worst ransomware attacks of 2017 so far, according to Webroot:

1. NotPetyaNotPetya started as a fake Ukranian tax software update, and went on to infect hundreds of thousands of computers in more than 100 countries over the course of just a few days. This ransomware is a variant of Petya, but uses the same exploit behind WannaCry. It hit a number of firms in the US and caused major financial damage: For example, the attack cost pharmaceutical giant Merck more than $300 million in Q3 alone, and is on track to hit that amount again in Q4.

Source: The top 10 worst ransomware attacks of 2017, so far – TechRepublic